There are multiple types of cancer surgery:
Diagnostic Surgery is also known as a biopsy. A biopsy removes a sample of tissue from the body for examination. During an examination of the colon, a biopsy can be taken with forceps through a tube known as an endoscope. In other cases, the biopsy is taken using a hypodermic needle.
Staging Surgery is used to determine the extent of a cancer when less invasive procedures are not effective. In some cases, this can be done without an incision by using a tiny camera attached to a flexible tube. The tube is inserted into natural body openings. These cameras allow surgeons to view suspicious areas and take tissue samples when needed.
Curative Surgery involves the removal of a cancerous tumor. It works well on localized cancers that haven't spread to other parts of the body. Curative surgery is often followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to be certain all cancerous cells have been removed.
Supportive Surgery is surgery that supports other cancer treatments. A common supportive surgery is the insertion of a port. Ports are used to give physicians access to different parts of the body. They may be used for chemotherapy treatments or to monitor different parts of the body.
Preventative Surgery can be an effective way to keep cancer from occurring. Precancerous skin cells can be removed before they become malignant. Many colon cancers can be prevented by removing precancerous polyps.