A novel cancer vaccine designed to treat HER-2- and/or CEA-expressing cancers.
vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells
Cells isolated from lymph nodes from patients, and activated in vitro to generate tumor-specific effector T cells. Lymph nodes in the lymphatics draining tumors often contain T cells that are immunologically sensitized but functionally deficient. Vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells are prepared by isolating these lymphocytes in vitro and stimulating them with cytokines to differentiate into mature effector cells. Vaccine-draining lymph node cells may also be produced by pharmacological activation of lymph node-derived lymphocytes with drugs such as ionomycin or with bacterial toxin; these activated lymphocytes may be expanded in culture with cytokines such as interleukin-2 prior to infusion into the patient.
vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR)
A highly tumor-selective vaccinia virus (vv) with an engineered double deletion (DD) of the thymidine kinase (tk) and vaccinia growth factor genes and additions of both a cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and a somatostatin receptor (SR) gene with potential oncolytic viral activity. The tk and vaccinia growth factor gene deletions in intratumorally administered vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) help to restrict its replication and cytolytic activity to tumor cells with large nucleotide pools and tumor cells with activation of the EGFR-Ras pathway. Addition of the CD gene to the viral genome allows control of oncolytic viral infection through the administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), converted by CD to the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cells infected with this agent. Addition of the SR gene allows anatomical localization of vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) through the use of octreotide scintigraphy.
A vaccine formulation consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding prostate specific antigen (PSA) and recombinant vaccinia virus encoding three co-stimulatory molecule transgenes B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (TRICOM). Vaccination with PSA in combination with TRICOM may enhance antigen presentation, resulting in the augmentation of a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against tumor cells expressing PSA.
A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus, based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), that encodes the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase. Vaccination with vaccinia-tyrosinase may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing tyrosinase. Tyrosinase is a melanoma-specific differentiation agent that catalyzes the synthesis of the melanin precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
A fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Vadimezan induces the cytokines tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha), serotonin and nitric oxide, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and a decrease in angiogenesis. This agent also stimulates the anti-tumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages.
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
(Other name for: valganciclovir)
Valeriana officinalis extract
An herbal extract isolated from the root of the plant Valeriana officinalis with sedative and anxiolytic activities. Valeriana officinalis extract contains four distinct classes of phytochemical constituents: volatile oils; sesquiterpenoids, including valerenic acid and its hydroxyl and acetoxyl derivative; valepotriates; and volatile pyridine alkaloids. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been established, the sequiterpenoids in Valeriana officinalis extract, particularly valerenic acid, appear to account for its sedative and anxiolytic effects. Valerenic acid is both a subtype-selective GABA-A receptor agonist and a 5HT-5A receptor partial agonist. The sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepines are GABA-A receptor agonists.
An orally active nonpeptide triazole-derived antagonist of angiotensin (AT) II with antihypertensive properties. Valsartan selectively and competitively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 subtype receptor in vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland, preventing AT II-mediated vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, and renal reabsorption of sodium, and resulting in vasodilation, increased excretion of sodium and water, a reduction in plasma volume, and a reduction in blood pressure.
An analogue of cyclosporin-A. Valspodar inhibits p-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance efflux pump, thereby restoring the retention and activity of some drugs in some drug-resistant tumor cells. This agent also induces caspase-mediated apoptosis.
(Other name for: valrubicin)
(Other name for: valacyclovir)
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)
Vanicream Sunscreen SPF 60
(Other name for: titanium dioxide/zinc oxide sunscreen cream SPF 60)
(Other name for: fluocinonide cream)
(Other name for: cefpodoxime proxetil)
(Other name for: hepatitis A vaccine)
The hydrochloride salt form of vardenafil, a benzenesulfonamide derivative and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with vasodilatory activity. Vardenafil selectively inhibits PDE5, thus inhibiting the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis. The inhibition of cGMP degradation results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, thereby prolonging penile erection.
A partial agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype alpha4beta2. Nicotine stimulation of central alpha4beta2 nAChRs located at presynaptic terminals in the nucleus accumbens causes the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which may be associated with the experience of pleasure; nicotine addiction constitutes a physiologic dependence related to this dopaminergic reward system. As an AChR partial agonist, varenicline attenuates the craving and withdrawal symptoms that occur with abstinence from nicotine but is not habit-forming itself.
(Other name for: multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF 1120)
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor family with potential antineoplastic activity. Varlitinib selectively and reversibly binds to both EGFR (ErbB-1) and Her-2/neu (ErbB-2) and prevents their phosphorylation and activation, which may result in inhibition of the associated signal transduction pathways, inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell death. EGFR and Her-2 play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation and are upregulated in various human tumor cell types. Due to the dual inhibition of both EGFR and Her-2, this agent may be therapeutically more effective than agents that inhibit EGFR or Her-2 alone.
vascular disrupting agent BNC105P
A benzofuran-based vascular disrupting agent (VDA) prodrug with potential anti-vascular and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration vascular disrupting agent BNC105P, the disodium phosphate ester of BNC105, is rapidly converted to BNC105; in activated endothelial cells, BNC105 binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which may result in a blockage of mitotic spindle formation, cell cycle arrest, and disruption of the tumor vasculature. Hypoxic conditions ensue, depriving tumor cells of nutrients and resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. In addition to its VDA activity, this agent has a direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells by inhibiting tubulin polymerization.
BNC105 is not a substrate for the multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter.
vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide
An antisense oligonucleotide with potential antiangiogenesis activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide binds directly to binds VEGF A/C/D mRNA, leading to mRNA degradation and the inhibition of VEGF A-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF C/D-mediated lymphangiogenesis.
(Other name for: phentolamine mesylate)
(Other name for: enalapril maleate)
A vaccine consisting of two plasmids encoding the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) tegument phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), a major internal matrix protein, and glycoprotein B (gB), an important CMV component responsible for attachment and entry into cells, with immunostimulatory properties. Vaccination with VCL-CB01 may stimulate the host immune system to mount cellular and humoral immune responses against CMV positive cells, resulting in cell lysis.
vector-peptide conjugated paclitaxel
A proprietary conjugate of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Similar to the free drug, the paclitaxel moiety in vector-peptide conjugated paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin molecules, promoting assembly of microtubules and inhibiting tubulin disassembly which results in the inhibition of cell division. The Kunitz domain-derived vector-peptide carries the conjugated paclitaxel through the blood brain barrier (BBB), bypassing the transmembrane p-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump, which may result in higher concentrations of paclitaxel in the brain parenchyma.
(Other name for: minocycline hydrochloride)
VEGF inhibitor PTC299
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. VEGF inhibitor PTC299 targets post-transcriptionally by selectively binding the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby preventing translation of VEGF. This inhibits VEGF protein production and decreases its levels in the tumor and bloodstream. In turn, this may result in the inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and eventually the induction of tumor cell death. VEGFs are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play key roles during angiogenesis. In addition, PTC299 may enhance the antitumor activity of other chemotherapeutic agents.
VEGFR inhibitor KRN951
An orally bioavailable quinoline-urea derivative inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2 with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. VEGFR inhibitor KRN951 inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFRs 1 and 2, which may result in inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and tumor cell death. Expression of VEGFRs may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types.
VEGFR/FGFR dual kinase inhibitor E-3810
A novel dual inhibitor targeting human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with antiangiogenic activity. VEGFR/FGFR dual kinase inhibitor E-3810 inhibits VEGFR-1, -2, -3 and FGFR-1, -2 kinases in the nM range, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. Both VEGFRs and FGFRs belong to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases that may be upregulated in various tumor cell types.
VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor TAK-593
An oral formulation containing a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. TAK-593 selectively binds to and inhibits VEGFR and PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation.
VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82
An orally available small molecule dual inhibitor targeting human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) with antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82 inhibits all isoforms of VEGFR and PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. Both VEGFRs and PDGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases that may be upregulated in various tumor cell types. VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82 has been shown to reduce tissue toxicity by 95 percent compared with first-generation kinase inhibitors.
VEGFR1-1084 peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine containing an HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 or Flt-1) with potential immunostimulating, antiangiogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, VEGFR1-1084 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against VEGFR1-expressing endothelial cells of the tumor microvasculature, which may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. VEGFR1, a receptor tyrosine kinase, may be overexpressed on endothelial cells of the tumor microvasculature and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and tumor angiogenesis. HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenicity.
VEGFR2-169 peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine containing an HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, VEGFR2-169 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against VEGFR2-expressing tumor cells. VEGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor types; overexpression is associated with tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity.
VEGFR2-targeted contrast agent BR55
A lipopeptide-based, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGRF2) -targeted contrast agent with the property of molecular imaging of angiogenesis. BR55 is prepared by incorporation of a biospecific heterodimer peptide into the perfluorobutane-containing lipid-shelled microbubble membrane; the peptide specifically binds to VEGFR2 expressed on tumoral vascular endothelium allowing ultrasound imaging of the sites of active angiogenesis.
(Other name for: vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide)
(Other name for: vinblastine sulfate)
An orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive, small-molecule inhibitor of BRAF(V600E) kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Vemurafenib selectively binds to the ATP-binding site of BRAF(V600E) kinase and inhibits its activity, which may result in an inhibition of an over-activated MAPK signaling pathway downstream in BRAF(V600E) kinase-expressing tumor cells and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Approximately 90% of BRAF gene mutations involve a valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at residue 600 (V600E); the oncogene protein product, BRAF(V600E) kinase, exhibits a markedly elevated activity that over-activates the MAPK signaling pathway. The BRAF(V600E) gene mutation has been found to occur in approximately 60% of melanomas, and in about 8% of all solid tumors, including melanoma, colorectal, thyroid and other cancers.
(Other name for: iron sucrose injection)
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
(Other name for: iloprost)
(Other name for: albuterol sulfate)
A phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocking agent. Verapamil inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing dilatation of the main coronary and systemic arteries and decreasing myocardial contractility. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in some multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents.
(Other name for: verapamil)
(Other name for: kunecatechins ointment)
A synthetic light-activated agent with photodynamic activity. Upon systemic administration, verteporfin accumulates in neovessels in the eye and, once stimulated by nonthermal red light in the presence of oxygen, produces highly reactive short-lived singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen radicals, resulting in local damage to neovascular endothelium and blood vessel occlusion.
A quinazoline derivative with potential dual antineoplastic activities. Verubulin hydrochloride binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization and interrupts microtubule formation, resulting in disruption of mitotic spindle assembly, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and cell death. This agent is not a substrate for several subtypes of multidrug resistance ABC transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1); therefore, it may be useful for treating multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors that express these transporters. In addition, as a vascular disrupting agent (VDA), MPC-6827 appears to disrupt tumor microvasculature specifically, which may result in acute ischemia and massive tumor cell death.
(Other name for: voriconazole)
(Other name for: moxifloxacin hydrochloride)
(Other name for: telavancin hydrochloride)
(Other name for: doxycycline)
(Other name for: hydrocodone/acetaminophen)
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus with antineoplastic activity. Vidarabine inhibits DNA polymerase, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication in tumor cells.
(Other name for: povidone-iodine)
(Other name for: didanosine)
(Other name for: didanosine)
(Other name for: vincristine sulfate)
(Other name for: muscadine grape skin extract)
vinorelbine tartrate emulsion
An emulsion containing the tartrate salt of the semisynthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine with antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin, inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules; cell division is prevented, the cell cycle is arrested metaphase and cell death ensues. In this formulation vinorelbine is emulsified in a homogeneous suspension of nanoparticles, which protects the venous endothelium from coming into direct contact with the active ingredient, potentially reducing vinorelbine-associated venous toxicity at the venous injection site.
vinorelbine tartrate oral
An orally bioavailable tartrate salt of vinorelbine, a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid with potential antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules and spindle formation and resulting in apoptosis of susceptible cancer cells. Inhibition of mitotic microtubules correlates with antitumor activity, whereas inhibition of axonal microtubules seems to correlate with vinorelbine's neurotoxicity. Compared to related vinca alkaloids, vinorelbine is more selective against mitotic than axonal microtubules in vitro, which may account for its decreased neurotoxicity. This agent is also a radiation-sensitizing agent.
(Other name for: vidarabine)
(Other name for: nelfinavir mesylate)
(Other name for: ribavirin)
(Other name for: ribavirin)
(Other name for: cidofovir)
(Other name for: verteporfin)
vitamin K1-containing urea skin cream
A topical cream containing urea and 0.1% vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) with topical epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating activity. Upon application of vitamin K1-containing urea skin cream, vitamin K1 may locally activate EGFR, thereby abrogating EGFR inhibition in the skin caused by systemic EGFR inhibiting agents. This may help inhibit the acne-like skin rash induced by EGFR antagonists. EGFR, a tyrosine kinase, plays a key role in maintaining epidermal integrity.
(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)
A dihydropteridinone Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Volasertib selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner.
von Hippel-Lindau peptide vaccine
A cancer vaccine composed of peptides derived from a tumor-associated protein encoded by a mutated Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) oncogene. VHL peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells expressing the VHL tumor-associated protein.
(Other name for: glucarpidase)
A small molecule and a naphthyridine analogue with antineoplastic activity. Vosaroxin intercalates into DNA in a site-specific manner and blocks the re-ligation process carried out by topoisomerase II during DNA replication. As a result, inhibition of DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis occurs, followed by cell cycle arrest at G2 phase and induced p53-independent apoptosis. This agent shows a favorable toxicity profile in several aspects: it does not generate reactive oxygen species, as do anthracyclines, reducing the risk of cardiotoxicity; it is not a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, and thereby evades the common mechanism for multidrug resistance; and it has limited distribution to normal tissues and a more chemically stable molecular structure.
(Other name for: live freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria probiotic)
(Other name for: teniposide)
(Other name for: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate)