(Other name for: celecoxib)
(Other name for: betamethasone)
(Other name for: elliptinium acetate)
cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83
A proprietary agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83 IC83 inhibits cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes, which may result in enhanced cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents and diminished tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes are involved in the recognition and repair of damaged DNA and are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells.
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone which may be used in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: lobradimil)
(Other name for: papaverine)
(Other name for: TGFa-PE38 immunotoxin)
cesium Cs 131
An unstable radioisotope of cesium (Cs) with radiocytotoxic application. Cs-131 is a gamma photon-emitting radionuclide with high energy and a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days. When used in prostate brachytherapy, Cs-131 demonstrated advantages over other commonly used isotopes.
cesium Cs 137
A radioactive isotope of cesium with an atomic mass of 139 and potential application in radiotherapy. Cesium Cs 137 is prevalent due to its spontaneous production, which occurs as a result of nuclear fission of other radioactive materials, such as uranium and plutonium. This radionuclide has a relatively long half-life, 30 years, and decays by emitting beta particles. Both Cs 137 and its metastable nuclear isomer, barium-137m, emit gamma radiation of moderate energy and so are used in sterilization procedures in the food industry or in hospital environments.
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
A cholinergic analogue with glandular secretion stimulatory activity. Cevimeline binds to and activates muscarinic receptors, thereby increasing the secretions in exocrine salivary and sweat glands. This cholinergic agonist also increases the tone of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Cevimeline is being studied as a treatment for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy to the head and neck.
cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382
A small molecule and orally available inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R; cFMS) with potential antineoplastic activity. cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382 binds to and inhibits the activity of cFMS. By preventing colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-cFMS signaling, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cFMS-overexpressing tumor cells. cFMS, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and plays an essential role in macrophage differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation.
checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor LY2606368
An inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY2606368 selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing activity of chk1 and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA and may promote genomic instability and apoptosis. LY2606368 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, a serine/threonine kinase, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control and is essential for DNA repair and plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.
checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762
A synthetic small molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases (Chks) with potential chemosensitizing activity. AZD7762 binds to and inhibits Chks, which may prevent cell cycle arrest and subsequent nucleotide excision repair in DNA-damaged tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Chks are protein kinases that regulate either G1/S or G2/M transitions in the cell cycle. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, Chks become activated and initiate cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or the completion of DNA replication.
(Other name for: recombinant human hyaluronidase)
Chinese herbal formulation PHY906
An oral traditional Chinese herbal formulation in powder form containing a spray dried aqueous extract from the herbs Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Paeonia lactiflora with potential immunomodulating and chemoprotective activities. Although the mechanism of actions remain to be fully elucidated, PHY906 possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as the enhancement of oral uptake of pharmacologically active agents, inhibition of CYP3A4, modulation of certain cytokines, macrophages and lymphocytes, and inhibition of expression of MMP, NF-kB, beta-glucuronidase, the NK-1 receptor, and the delta-opioid receptor.
Herbs used in Chinese Herbal Therapy for toxicity attenuation.
(Other name for: synthetic human secretin)
chk1 inhibitor PF-477736
A proprietary compound targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential chemopotentiation activity. Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 inhibits chk1, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring S/G2 checkpoint system. By overriding the last checkpoint defense against DNA damaging agent-induced lethal damage, chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents against tumor cells with intrinsic checkpoint defects.
Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776
An agent targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) with potential radiosensitization and chemosensitization activities. Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 specifically binds to and inhibits Chk1, which may result in tumor cells bypassing Chk1-dependent cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases to undergo DNA repair prior to entry into mitosis; tumor cells may thus be sensitized to the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1 is an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that in response to DNA damage phosphorylates cdc25 phosphatases, resulting in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and cell cycle arrest.
CHK2 inhibitor LY2603618
An inhibitor of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (chk2) with potential chemopotentiating activity. Chk2 inhibitor LY2603618 binds to and inhibits the activity of chk2, which may prevent the repair of DNA caused by DNA-damaging agents, thus potentiating the antitumor efficacies of various chemotherapeutic agents. Chk2, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase, is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring checkpoint system and is activated by double-stranded breaks (DSBs); activated chk2 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types.
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of chlorambucil and prednisone used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)
A biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity. Chlorhexidine is positively charged and reacts with the negatively charged microbial cell surface, thereby destroying the integrity of the cell membrane. Subsequently, chlorhexidine penetrates into the cell and causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Since gram positive bacteria are more negatively charged, they are more sensitive to this agent.
A 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. This agent may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Chloroquine's potential chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities in cancer may be related to its inhibition of autophagy, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation.
A glucose-linked chloroethylnitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Chlorozotocin alkylates DNA and proteins, induces the formation of interstrand DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks, and causes DNA strand breakage, thereby damaging DNA and resulting in cell death. This agent has been shown to exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory effects in cell lines and animal models. Chlorozotocin is a mutagen and is less myelotoxic than other nitrosoureas.
A phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity. Chlorpromazine exerts its antipsychotic effect by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in cortical and limbic areas of the brain, thereby preventing the excess of dopamine in the brain. This leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Chlorpromazine appears to exert its anti-emetic activity by blocking the dopamine receptors in the chemical trigger zone (CTZ) in the brain, thereby relieving nausea and vomiting.
A benzoxazolone derivative with mild sedative and centrally-acting muscle relaxant activities. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, chlorzoxazone (CZ) appears to act at the spinal cord and subcortical levels of the brain to inhibit multisynaptic reflex arcs involved in producing and maintaining muscle spasms. This agent is extensively hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (HCZ),11,12 which is subsequently glucuronidated and eliminated renally. Highly selective for CYP2E1, CZ may be used as a selective probe for phenotyping CYP2E1 in humans; the ratio of HCZ-to-CZ plasma concentrations obtained 2 to 4 hours after oral administration of CZ may be used as a phenotypic measure of CYP2E1 enzymatic activity.
cholecalciferol/d-alpha tocopherol/L-selenomethionine/green tea extract/saw palmetto berry extract/daidzein/genistein/lycopene prostate health supplement
A dietary supplement consisting of a blend of 8 natural ingredients with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. This dietary supplement contains vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol), vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol), selenium (as L-selenomethionine), epigallocatechin (green tea extract), saw palmetto (berry extract), lycopene, and the isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein. This combination preparation may decrease prostate cell growth and inhibit prostate carcinogenesis.
cholecystokinin B receptor antagonist YF476
An orally active, benzodiazepine type, selective cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR; CCK2R; gastrin receptor) antagonist with potential gastric acid reducing and antiproliferative activity. Upon administration of YF476, this agent selectively binds to and blocks the CCKBR, thereby preventing the binding of gastrin and cholecystokinin. This may prevent gastric neuroendocrine enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell-induced secretion of histamine, ultimately preventing gastric acid secretion from adjacent parietal cells. In addition, YF476 may inhibit ECL cell proliferation and ECL-derived gastric carcinoids.
(Other name for: technetium Tc 99m mebrofenin)
choline kinase alpha inhibitor TCD-717
A small-molecule inhibitor of choline kinase alpha (CHKA), with potential antineoplastic activity. TCD-717 targets and binds to CHKA, an enzyme that plays a key role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Blockade of this enzyme induces cells to activate a different route for phospholipid production which causes a toxic effect and eventually leads to cell destruction. CHKA, overexpressed in human cancer cells while only minimally expressed in normal cells, appears to play a significant role in cellular proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, increased cell motility and metastasis.
CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001
A peptide cancer vaccine containing nanoparticles of cholesteryl hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) complexed with the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 protein, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001 may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The self-aggregating CHP, composed of a pullulan backbone and cholesterol branches, forms stable colloidal nanoparticles in water.
NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis, is upregulated in various cancers, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers.
A glycosidic antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Chromomycin A3 reversibly binds to guanine-cytosine (G-C) base pairs in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis. This agent is used as a fluorescent chromosome dye.
ciclopirox olamine lotion
A lotion preparation of the olamine salt of ciclopirox, a synthetic hydroxypyridone derivative with broad-spectrum antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ciclopirox may chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+ and Al3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential metal co-factors for enzymes, which may result in a loss of enzyme activities that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure, and other crucial cell functions in a wide variety of fungal species. This agent may also disrupt DNA repair, cell division signals and mitotic spindles as well as some elements of intracellular transport in susceptible fungi. Ciclopirox exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX).
ciclopirox olamine oral
An aqueous suspension of the olamine salt form of ciclopirox, a synthetic, broad-spectrum hydroxypyridone antifungal agent with additional antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Although the exact mechanism of action of ciclopirox has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent is able to chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential co-factors for enzymes. This may lead to a loss of activity of enzymes that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure and other crucial cell functions. In addition, ciclopirox exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX).
The orally bioavailable hydrochloride salt of the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Cinacalcet increases the sensitivity of calcium-sensing receptors on chief cells in the parathyroid gland to extracellular calcium, thereby reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. A reduction in PTH levels inhibits osteoclast activity, which may result in a decrease in cortical bone turnover and bone fibrosis, and normalization of serum calcium and phosphorus levels. In addition, by reducing PTH levels, cinacalcet may reduce PSA levels; PTH appears to raise PSA levels and may increase prostate cancer cell growth.
A bufadienolide compound extracted from the dried venom secreted by the parotid glands of toads and one of the glycosides in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the mechanism of action of cinobufagin is still under investigation, it has been found to suppress cancer cell proliferation and cause apoptosis in cancer cells via a sequence of apoptotic modulators that include mitochondrial Bax and cytosolic chromosome c, and caspases 3, 8, and 9. Possible upstream mediators of cinobufagin-induced apoptosis include Fas and p53.
A recombinant chimeric protein with potent antitumor activity. Cintredekin besudotox is composed of interleukin-13 (IL13), a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine, linked to a mutated form of pseudomonas exotoxin A; this agent targets and kills tumor cells that express the IL13 receptor (IL13R).The IL13 moiety attaches to the IL13R on the tumor cell membrane, facilitating the entry of the exotoxin. The exotoxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis.
(Other name for: therapeutic melatonin)
cisplatin-e therapeutic implant
An injectable collagen matrix gel containing the inorganic platinum agent cisplatin and the sympathicomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, cisplatin alkylates guanine nucleosides in DNA, and causes DNA-DNA or DNA-protein cross-linkages, thereby preventing DNA replication and resulting in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to enhance penetration of cisplatin into tumor tissue and reduce dispersion into the surrounding tissues. Intratumoral injection of cisplatin-E therapeutic implant may increase local chemotherapeutic efficacy compared to the systemic administration of these agents while reducing systemic toxicity.
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
The orally bioavailable hydrobromide salt of the racemic bicyclic phthalene derivative citalopram with antidepressant activity. As a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram selectively inhibits the CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin, thereby potentiating serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). This agent has minimal effects on the CNS neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA).
A fusion protein immunotoxin consisting of a humanized, single-chain monoclonal antibody Fab fragment specific for the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) conjugated with a modified bouganin cytotoxin with potential antineoplastic activity. Citatuzumab bogatox binds to EpCAM, delivering modified bouganin cytotoxin directly to EpCam-positive tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell protein synthesis and tumor cell death. EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Bouganin is a plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), a toxic plant N-glycosidase that depurinates the universally conserved alpha-sarcin loop of ribosomal rRNA, inactivating the ribosome and preventing protein synthesis. Compared to unmodified bouganins, modified bouganins may have a reduced propensity to activate human T cells.
A nutritional supplement and source of choline and cytidine with potential neuroprotective and nootropic activity. Citicoline, also known as cytidine-5-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline, is hydrolyzed into cytidine and choline in the intestine. Following absorption, both cytidine and choline are dispersed, utilized in various biosynthesis pathways, and cross the blood-brain barrier for resynthesis into citicoline in the brain, which is the rate-limiting product in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. This agent also increases acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, citicoline is involved in the preservation of sphingomyelin and cardiolipin and the restoration of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Citicoline also increases glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity, and exerts antiapoptotic effects.
(Other name for: calcium citrate)
(Other name for: magnesium citrate)
CK2 inhibitor CX-4945
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of CK2 with potential antineoplastic activity. CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 selectively binds to and inhibits the enzyme casein kinase II (CK2), which may lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival.
(Other name for: cyclophosphamide)
(Other name for: cefotaxime)
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)
Class 1 PI3K kinase family inhibitor XL147
An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Class 1 PI3K kinase family inhibitor XL147 reversibly binds to class 1 PI3Ks in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K signaling pathway; this may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents including genotoxic agents and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
A monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen GC182 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, claudiximab specifically binds to GC128, which may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against GC182-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation. The CD20-like antigen GC182, a gastric differentiation protein, is often overexpressed on the cell surfaces of a variety of tumor cells, including gastric, pancreatic, esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion
An injectable phospholipid emulsion containing the butyrate salt of the synthetic, short-acting, dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel antagonist clevidipine with antihypertensive activity. Clevidipine specifically binds to calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting the influx of extracellular calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells. This results in dilatation of systemic arteries, a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and so a decrease in arterial blood pressure. This agent is metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite.
(Other name for: clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion)
A synthetic pyrimidine analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Intracellularly, clevudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolites, clevudine monophosphate and triphosphate. The triphosphate metabolite competes with thymidine for incorporation into viral DNA, thereby causing DNA chain termination and inhibiting the function of HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). Clevudine has a long half-life and shows significant reduction of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), therefore the patient is less likely to have a relapse after treatment is discontinued.
A topical lotion, containing clindamycin and hydrocortisone, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Clindamycin, a lincomycin antibiotic, binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. As a glucocorticoid agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppression of immune and inflammatory responses.
Clino-San vaginal lubricant
A vaginal lubricant formulated as a topical gel used to prevent and treat vaginal dryness. With a pH similar to that of normal vaginal discharge, Clino-San vaginal lubricant may reduce dryness, pain and irritation often caused by insufficient vaginal discharge due to atrophy of the vulvovaginal mucosa.
(Other name for: sulindac)
An orally bioavailable, lipophilic, copper-binding, halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline with antifungal, antiparasitic and potential antitumor activities. Clioquinol forms a stable chelate with copper (copper (II) ions), which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome; consequently, ubiquitinated proteins may accumulate in tumor cells, followed by tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the clioquinol-copper complex appears to decrease the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human copper-enriched prostate cancer cells. Serum levels of copper are often elevated in patients with cancer; copper chelation may inhibit copper-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and tumor secretion of angiogenic factors.
The propionate salt form of clobetasol, a topical synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Clobetasol propionate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators. Specifically, clobetasol propionate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.
The disodium salt of a nitrogen-free bisphosphonate analog of naturally occurring pyrophosphate. Clodronate binds to calcium and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and hydroxyapatite crystal formation and dissolution, resulting in a reduction of bone turnover. This agent may control malignancy-associated hypercalcemia, inhibit osteolytic bone metastasis and decrease pain.
(Other name for: clofarabine)
An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols.
(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)
The citrate salt form of clomiphene, a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant evaluated for antineoplastic activity against breast cancer. Clomiphene has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities that compete with estrogen for binding at estrogen receptor sites in target tissues. This agent causes the release of the pituitary gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), leading to ovulation.
(Other name for: clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet)
clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet
An extended release, proprietary mucoadhesive buccal tablet formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, the imidazoline derivative and adrenergic alpha 2 receptor agonist, with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon contact of the tablet with the buccal mucosa, clonidine binds to the adrenergic receptors on macrophages and lymphocytes and may reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). As a result, this agent may prevent chemoradiation therapy-induced mucositis.
A thienopyridine with antiplatelet activity. Clopidogrel bisulfate irreversibly alters the platelet receptor for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thereby blocking the binding of ADP to its receptor, inhibiting ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein complex GPIIb/IIIa, and inhibiting fibrinogen binding to platelets and platelet adhesion and aggregation.
Clostridium novyi-NT spores
Spores of Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated strain of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium novyi, with potential immunostimulating and oncolytic activities. Upon intravenous administration, Clostridium novyi-NT spores germinate exclusively in hypoxic tissue, such as avascular regions of tumors. Germination results in lysis and destruction of surrounding viable tumor cells. Although C. novyi-NT spores do not proliferate in oxygenated tumor regions, they may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytolytic immune response against tumor cells, both hypoxic and well-oxygenated.
A synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal activity. Clotrimazole inhibits biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, thereby damaging and affecting the permeability of the cell membrane. This results in leakage and loss of essential intracellular compounds, and eventually causes cell lysis.
CMV pp65 peptide
A peptide derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) internal matrix protein pp65. CMV pp65 peptide antigen is used in recombinant vaccinia virus as an HLA-A-restricted epitope to produce vaccines and specific CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses against CMV infection, a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In BMT, CMV infection may be prevented by passive immunization with donor-derived CMV-pp65-specific T-cell clones if provided early post-BMT.
CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine
A peptide-based cancer vaccine containing a mutated form of the HLA-A*0201-restricted cytomegaloviral epitope CMVpp65(495-503) with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-positive cells, resulting in cell lysis. HLA-A*0201 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*0201 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. CMVpp65, a tegument protein of the herpes virus CMV, is the main viral antigen found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after viral infection and may activate cell-mediated immunity.
CNGRC peptide-TNF alpha conjugate
A cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis.
(Other name for: warfarin)
Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract
A homeopathic herbal formulation with potential anti-emetic activity. Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract contains equal homeopathic units of the following extracts: extract of Cocculus indicus (fish berry), the fruit of the southeast Asian/Indian climbing plant Anamirta cocculus; extract of the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica (poison nut), an evergreen tree native to southeast Asia; extract of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); and petroleum. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action for this formulation has yet to be fully elucidated, alkaloids in these plant extracts have been shown to relieve nausea, vomiting, and, in some cases, dizziness.
(Other name for: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate)
cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131
An I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, manufactured with a proprietary process, with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131 (MIBG) localizes to adrenergic tissue and may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that accumulate and metabolize norepinephrine. This agent is manufactured using a technology that avoids the production of unwanted "cold contaminants" (i.e., carrier molecules), which may cause undesirable side effects and compete with MIBG for binding on target receptor sites.
collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel
A topical preparation containing collagen, aloe vera, vitamin E, and lidocaine hydrochloride with wound-healing activity. The four ingredients of collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel may promote wound repair and new tissue growth in which : collagen, a structural protein in connective tissue, provides a connective tissue matrix for the attachment of various cells involved in wound repair; aloe vera carbohydrate polymers provide a moist wound environment; vitamin E promotes blood vessel formation; and lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic.
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
(Other name for: ferumoxtran-10)
(Other name for: deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins)
combretastatin A1 diphosphate
The diphosphate prodrug of the stilbenoid combretastatin A1, originally isolated from the plant Combretum caffrum, with vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, combretastatin A1 diphosphate (CA1P) is dephosphorylated to the active metabolite combretastatin A1 (CA1), which promotes rapid microtubule depolymerization; endothelial cell mitotic arrest and apoptosis, destruction of the tumor vasculature, disruption of tumor blood flow and tumor cell necrosis may ensue. In addition, orthoquinone intermediates, metabolized from combretastatin A1 by oxidative enzymes found to be elevated levels in some tumor types, may bind to tumor cell thiol-specific antioxidant proteins and DNA, and stimulate oxidative stress by enhancing superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production. CA1 binds to tubulin at the same site as colchicine but with higher affinity.
(Other name for: nicotine lozenge)
(Other name for: warfarin)
A fully human monoclonal agonist antibody directed against the extracellular domain of human TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptor 2 (TR-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Conatumumab mimics the activity of native TRAIL, binding to and activating TR-2, thereby activating caspase cascades and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. TR-2 is expressed by a variety of solid tumors and cancers of hematopoietic origin.
Purified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription.
conjugated linoleic acid
A slightly altered form of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid important to human health found in beef and dairy fats.
(Other name for: theophylline)
copper Cu 64 trastuzumab
A diagnostic radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64. Copper Cu 64 trastuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), allowing the detection of HER2 distribution using positron emission tomography (PET).
copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase and client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types.
The orally bioavailable copper salt of D-gluconic acid. In addition to its roles as an enzyme cofactor for cytochrome C oxidase and superoxide dismutase, copper forms complexes with the thiocarbamate disulfiram (DSF) forming DSF-copper complexes, which enhances the DSF-mediated inhibition of the 26S proteasome; proteasome inhibition may result in inhibition of cellular protein degradation, cessation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cellular proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations.
(Other name for: amiodarone hydrochloride)
(Other name for: carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsule)
(Other name for: nadolol)
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)