(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)
A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation.
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular
domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to
a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1
(IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes.
(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)
(Other name for: tretinoin)
A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis.
HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins.
(Other name for: methotrexate)
absorbable gelatin sponge
A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage.
A regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide, given in combination with radiation therapy and used for the treatment of high-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria.
A complex oligosaccharide used as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management. Acarbose inhibits enzymes required in catabolism of carbohydrates, specifically pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, and the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases, which hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. When acarbose is orally administered, less digestion of complex carbohydrates occur and less glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, thereby producing a smaller rise in postprandial blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate load.
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix
A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection.
(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)
An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties.
(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)
(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)
A modified amino acid and structural analog of glutamine. Acivicin inhibits glutamine amidotransferases in the purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in cell lines dependent on glutamine metabolism.
An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
(Other name for: nimustine)
A synthetic imidazoquinoline with antineoplastic activity. Acodazole intercalates into DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA replication. Use of this agent has been associated with significant cardiotoxicity.
(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)
(Other name for: ursodiol)
(Other name for: recombinant interferon gamma)
actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab conjugated to the alpha-emitting radioisotope actinium Ac 225 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation to cells expressing CD33. CD33 is a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells.
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)
(Other name for: estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet)
(Other name for: IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract)
(Other name for: risedronate sodium)
The sodium salt form of acyclovir, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV.
(Other name for: dapsone gel, 5%)
A replication incompetent adenoviral vector encoding the full-length tumor suppressor gene Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells (REIC or DKK3) (ad-REIC/DKK3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, tumor cells express REIC/DKK3 protein. This may result in the activation of c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) and ultimately apoptosis via Bcl2 suppression and caspase-3 activation. Expression of REIC/DKK3 is normal in healthy cells but reduced or absent in many cancer cells; Forced overexpression of REIC/DKK3 in cancer cells may lead to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and reduction of tumor cell growth while sparing normal, healthy cells naturally expressing endogenous REIC/DKK3.
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human MUC-1 (hMUC-1) linked to the extracellular domain (ecd) of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an adenovirus signal sequence that encodes a secretory signal peptide (Ad-sig) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Due to the presence of the secretory signal peptide expressed by Ad-sig in the vaccine construct, transfected cells may secrete a fusion protein composed of hMUC-1 and the CD40L ecd. The CD40L moiety part of the fusion protein binds to CD40 receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Subsequently, DCs may be activated and migrate, T-cells may expand, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress hMUC-1 may follow. MUC-1 is a hypoglycosylated TAA overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells.
A recombinant type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), encoding the gene for the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) linked to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, with potential gene transfection activity. Upon intratumoral injection, Ad5-CMV-NIS is taken up by tumor cells, resulting in the cellular expression of NIS. Subsequently, orally administered iodine 131 is taken up by NIS-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the selective accumulation of a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation in non-thyroidal tumor cells, sparing adjacent normal tissue. NIS, an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein, is an ion pump that actively transports iodide into cells which concentrate iodine; in addition to thyroid epithelial cells, it is found in non-thyroidal tissues including the salivary glands, the gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary glands.
A second generation, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 containing a yeast cytosine deaminase(yCD)/mutant sr39 herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion (yCD/mutTKsr39) gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration and transduction of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP into tumor cells and subsequent expression of cytosine deaminase and viral thymidine kinase, administered prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir are converted into their respective metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ganciclovir-5-monophosphate (ganciclovir-MP); 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to cytotoxic active metabolites 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP) and 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP); ganciclovir-TP subsequently is converted by mammalian thymidine kinase to cytotoxic ganciclovir-triphosphate (ganciclovir -TP). Tumor cells adjacent to tumor cells transduced with this agent may be killed through a "bystander effect". ADP may enhance spread and oncolytic activity of replication-competent adenoviruses. In addition to its oncolytic activity, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP may exhibit radiosensitizing activity.
An RGD-4C–modified, infectivity-enhanced, bicistronic type 5 adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, a therapeutic suicide gene, and the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Modification with the double cyclic peptide RGD-4C allows the virus to bind to cellular integrins, frequently expressed on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells, instead of the coxsackie and adenovirus (CAR) receptor, which is often nonfunctional in ovarian cancer cells. Upon intratumoral administration, Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD transfects tumor cells and expresses the HSV-tk gene. After subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue prodrug like ganciclovir (GCV), expressed HSV-tk phosphorylates and activates the prodrug, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in HSV-tk-expressing cancer cells. Additionally, as a bystander effect, adjacent non-transfected cells may be killed by the activated antiviral drug. SSTR2 expression allows imaging of gene transfer into tumor cells using a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue.
A replication-defective adenoviral-CMV vector that encodes a wild-type p53 gene. Ad5CMV-p53 induces tumor cells that have been transfected with the vector to produce wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. In transfected tumor cells, the wild-type p-53 gene product exerts an antitumor effect by blocking cell cycle progression at the G1/S regulation point, activating DNA repair proteins in the presence of DNA damage, and initiating apoptosis when DNA damage is irreparable.
Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with the replication-deficient adenoviral vector Ad5F53 encoding the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transmembrane latent membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LMP1/LMP2) with potential immunostimulatory activity. Vaccination with Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells may stimulate a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against LMP1- and LMP2-expressing tumor positive cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP1 and LMP2 are expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease.
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)
(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)
A recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the tumor associated antigen (TAA) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential antitumor activity. Adecatumumab binds to EpCAM, which may result in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. EpCAM (CD326), a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells; for some cancers, overexpression has been correlated with decreased survival.
An acyclic nucleotide adenine analogue with potent antiviral activity. Adefovir is activated in vivo to a diphosphate metabolite which is incorporated into viral DNA, leading to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase inhibition, DNA chain termination and impairment of viral replication. This agent inhibits the reverse transcriptases of hepatitis B, herpes and HIV viruses, induces natural killer cell activity, and stimulates endogenous interferon production. Viral resistance to adefovir develops at a slower rate compared to other antivirals.
adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102
An orally bioavailable, synthetic, highly selective adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102 selectively binds to and activates the cell surface-expressed A3AR, deregulating Wnt and NF-kB signal transduction pathways downstream, which may result in apoptosis of A3AR-expressing tumor cells. A3AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and plays an important role in cellular proliferation.
adenovector encoding MDA7
A nonreplicating adenoviral vector (adenovector) encoding the melanoma differentiation-associated 7 gene (MDA7) with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection and adenovector-mediated gene transfer of MDA7 into tumor cells, the expressed MDA7 transgene may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis.
adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine
A replication-defective, E1- and E2b-deleted oncolytic adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding an epitope of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine expresses a highly immunogenic analogue of CEA [CAP1-(6D)]. Upon administration, this vaccine may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the CEA antigen, thereby resulting in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. CEA, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Deletion of early genes E1 and E2b in Ad5 potentially circumvents pre-existing anti-adenovirus immunity and is capable of inducing strong immune responses.
adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase
An adenoviral vector engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, which, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, sensitizing tumor cells that overexpress HSV-tk to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequently, a low dose of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV) is given, which may preferentially kill tumor cells containing the adenoviral vector and overexpressing HSV-tk. Release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response.
A gene-viral vector complex comprised of an adenovirus vector and B7-1 gene targeting the CD80 antigen. Adenovirus B7-1 is used as a component in antineoplastic vaccines to elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response.
adenovirus encoding E.coli PNP
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (Ad/PNP) used as a prodrug activating agent. Administered intratumorally, Ad/PNP expresses the enzyme PNP, which may catalyze systematically administrated fludarabine phosphate prodrug into its active form 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). F-Ade inhibits DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth. Localized prodrug activation provides targeted chemotherapy, thereby potentially reducing systemic side effects.
adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1
A replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 with potential membrane water channel activity. Upon transfection of salivary glands, adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 (AdhAQP1) directs human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) expression in the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of salivary secretory cells, which may result in increased saliva production. hAQP1, a water channel protein, is one of several highly conserved water channel proteins that mediate water permeability in cells of water-transporting tissues.
adenovirus encoding rat Her-2/neu
A replication-defective oncolytic adenovirus, encoding rat Her-2/neu (ErbB-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus encoding rat HER-2/neu may induce an immune response against tumor cells expressing the HER-2/neu antigen, which may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Her-2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen and member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types.
adenovirus encoding recombinant human endostatin
A replication-defective, recombinant oncolytic adenovirus encoding human endostatin with potential antineoplastic activity. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an important angiogenesis inhibitor. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus infects and replicates in tumor cells. The expressed endostatin may inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis which may result in a reduction of tumor growth.
adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector encoding HER-2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against HER-2-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth.
HER-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) (also known as neu and ErbB2), is overexpressed by some breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers.
One of a number of genetically-engineered adenoviruses designed to insert a gene of interest into a eukaryotic cell where the gene of interest is subsequently expressed. Unlike most other vectors, adenovirus vectors have the ability to infect post-mitotic cells. Thus, these agents are especially useful for gene transfer into neuronal cells.
A replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding human interferon-gamma (IFN-g) cDNA with potential antineoplastic and immunoregulatory activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the prolonged expression of IFN-g by adenovirus-interferon-gamma TG1042 promotes a T helper type 1 (Th1-type) immune response and inhibits the Th2-mediated cytokine production observed in many cutaneous lymphomas. IFN-g also mediates interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs); activates macrophages, cytotoxic T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells; upregulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules; and stimulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Altogether, these IFN-g-mediated effects may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death.
adenovirus-mediated human interleukin-12
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (Ad.hIL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. Synergistically, IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation.
adenovirus-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding p53 peptide, with potential immunomodulating activity. Intradermal vaccination with adenoviral-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing mutant p53, resulting in tumor cell lysis. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is mutated in many tumor cells, resulting in the loss of apoptosis regulation and abnormal cell proliferation.
A small, cyclic pentapeptide vascular-targeting agent with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. ADH-1 selectively and competitively binds to and blocks N-cadherin, which may result in disruption of tumor vasculature, inhibition of tumor cell growth, and the induction of tumor cell and endothelial cell apoptosis. N-cadherin, a cell- surface transmembrane glycoprotein of the cadherin superfamily of proteins involved in calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion and signaling mechanisms; may be upregulated in some aggressive tumors and the endothelial cells and pericytes of some tumor blood vessels.
adipose-derived regenerative cells
A population of cells derived from adipose tissue with stem cell and wound repair activities. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) consists of several cell types, such as adult stem cells, vascular endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, among others. These cells contribute to wound repair through a variety of mechanisms by promoting blood vessel growth and blocking apoptosis. In addition, ADRC can differentiate into several tissue types, such as bone, cartilage, fat, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
An alkylating agent that bind to the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific manner and form covalent adducts with adenines, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and induction of apoptosis.
AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine
A cell-based vaccine comprised of prostate cancer cells transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding human RTVP-1 (AdRTVP-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. RTVP-1, also referred to as glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIP1), is down-regulated in prostate tumors. Regulated by tumor suppressor p53, the expression of RTVP-1 functions as a tumor suppressor, and is abundant in normal human prostate epithelial cells as well as in differentiated macrophages. Administration of AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine leads to an induction of apoptosis through the expression of RTVP-1, which may result in a reduction in prostate cancer cellular proliferation. In addition, this vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against prostate specific tumor- associated antigens.
(Other name for: fluorouracil)
(Other name for: Ad5CMV-p53 gene)
AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine
A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic.
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
An aerosol inhalation formulation containing a yeast-derived glycosylated recombinant form of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating activity. Sargramostim binds to specific cell surface receptors, modulating the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production. This agent also activates neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and promotes antigen presentation, upregulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated, lymphokine-activated killer cell function. Aerosol inhalation may help achieve high concentrations of sargramostim in the lung.
aerosolized liposomal rubitecan
An aerosolized liposomal preparation of a water-insoluble derivative of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic activity. 9-nitro-20 (S)-camptothecin and its active metabolite 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) selectively stabilize topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery.
This agent is formulated with dilauroylphosphatidylcholine and nebulized in particle sizes of 1.2-1.6 micrometer mass median aerodynamic diameter.
A synthetic peptide analogue of the naturally occurring alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) with potential photoprotective activity. Mimicking the action of a-MSH, afamelanotide stimulates melanocytes to increase the production and release of melanin. Increased melanocyte melanin may protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated cellular DNA damage, oxidation of membrane proteins, and alterations in intracellular signaling processes in epidermal cells. Endogenously, a-MSH is released by skin cells in response to UVR exposure, stimulating melanocytes to produce and release melanin.
An orally bioavailable dual receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Afatinib irreversibly binds to and inhibits human epidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (EGFR-1; HER2), which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. EGFR/HER2 are RTKs that belong to the EGFR superfamily; both play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization and are overexpressed in many cancer cell types.
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)
A tamoxifen metabolite with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Afimoxifene has a higher affinity for the estrogen receptor than tamoxifen, and functions as an antagonist in breast cancer cells.
(Other name for: sulindac)
AFP gene hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine
A cancer vaccine composed of naked plasmid DNA of the gene for the tumor-associated antigen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a macromolecule that acts as a specific immunologic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. This agent exerts an antitumor effect by inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to attack AFP-expressing tumor cells.
A glycoengineered, fully humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Afutuzumab, a third generation type II anti-CD20 antibody, selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of the human CD20 antigen on malignant human B cells. The Fc region carbohydrates of the antibody, enriched in bisected non-fucosylated glycosylation variants, contribute to its higher binding affinity for human FcgammaRIII receptors compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and caspase-independent apoptosis. In addition, modification of elbow hinge sequences within the antibody variable framework regions may account for the strong apoptosis-inducing activity of R7159 upon binding to CD20 on target cells.
A cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. AG-024322 selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (particularly CDK1,2 and 4), enzymes that regulate cell cycle progression. Inhibition of CDK may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell proliferation.
Agaricus blazei Murill extract
A dietary supplement containing an extract of the Basidiomycete fungus Agaricus blazei Murill with potential chemopreventive, antineoplastic and immunopotentiating activities. Agaricus blazei Murill extract contains high levels of phytochemicals, especially beta-D-glucans. Beta-D-glucans may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation; increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and immunoglobulin levels; and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, potentially boosting anti-tumor host immune responses.
The tricosasodium salt of a synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide containing 3 CpG motifs with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activity. Agatolimod selectively targets Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), thereby activating dendritic and B cells and stimulating cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses against tumor cells bearing tumor antigens.
(Other name for: tretinoin)
Akt antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201
A 20-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) against the proto-oncogene Akt with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt-1 antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201 binds to Akt-1 mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript; suppression of Akt-1 expression may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress Akt-1. Akt-1 is a serine-threonine protein kinase that stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of tumor cells.
Akt inhibitor GDC-0068
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GDC-0068 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP-competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
Akt inhibitor GSK2110183
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GSK2110183 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
Akt inhibitor GSK2141795
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GSK2141795 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
Akt inhibitor LY2780301
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor LY2780301 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
Akt inhibitor MK2206
An orally bioavailable allosteric inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor MK2206 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
Akt inhibitor SR13668
An orally bioavailable indole-3-carbinol (I3C) analogue inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Akt inhibitor SR13668 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
The sulfate salt of the short-acting sympathomimetic agent albuterol, a 1:1 racemic mixture of (R)-albuterol and (S)-albuterol with bronchodilator activity. Albuterol stimulates beta2-adrenergic receptors in the lungs, thereby activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP concentrations relax bronchial smooth muscle, relieve bronchospasms, and reduce inflammatory cell mediator release, especially from mast cells. To a lesser extent albuterol stimulates beta1-adrenergic receptors, thereby increasing the force and rate of myocardial contraction.
(Other name for: spironolactone)
(Other name for: alfentanil hydrochloride)
The hydrochloride salt form of alfentanil, an ultra short-acting, synthetic, opioid agonist with analgesic and local anesthesia enhancing activity. Alfentanil hydrochloride primarily binds to and stimulates the opiate receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Stimulation of the mu-subtype opioid receptor stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex and subsequently inhibits adenylate cyclase. This results in a decrease in intracellular cAMP and leads to a reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. The analgesic effect of alfentanil is likely due to the actions of its metabolite morphine, which induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, thereby resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alpha-2a)
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alfa)
The hydrochloride salt of alfuzosin, a quinazoline compound with smooth muscle-relaxing activity. Alfuzosin selectively binds to and antagonizes post-synaptic alpha1-adrenoreceptors in smooth muscle of the prostate, bladder base, bladder neck, prostatic capsule, and prostatic urethra, initiating relaxation of smooth muscle and resulting in improvement of urine flow and the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This agent also blocks alpha1-adrenoreceptors in peripheral vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilatation and a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance.
A cancer vaccine comprised of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells transfected to express murine alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase with potential antitumor activity. Vaccination is associated with the expression of murine alpha-1,3-galactosyl (alpha-gal) carbohydrate residues on cell membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids of the vaccine pancreatic cancer cell allograft; murine alpha-gal epitopes, not present on human cells, then induce a hyperacute rejection of the vaccine pancreatic cancer cell allograft. The hyperacute rejection involves the binding of pre-existing human anti-alpha-gal antibodies (which naturally occur against gut flora) to murine alpha-gal epitopes, resulting in the rapid activation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) towards allograft cells. The host immune system then attacks endogenous pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in ADCC towards endogenous pancreatic cancer cells.
A second-generation, orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora A kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Alisertib binds to and inhibits Aurora A kinase, which may result in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Aurora A kinase localizes to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules during mitosis, and is thought to regulate spindle assembly. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases occurs in a wide variety of cancers, including colon and breast cancers.
An orally- and topically-active naturally-occurring retinoic acid with antineoplastic, chemopreventive, teratogenic, and embryotoxic activities. Alitretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR); these activated receptors act as transcription factors, regulating gene expression that results in the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal cells and tumor cells.
Alka Seltzer Gold
(Other name for: sodium bicarbonate/potassium bicarbonate/anhydrous citric acid)