Arizona Oncology - The US Oncology Network

Disease and Drug Information

Glossary

1-(2´-deoxy-2´-fluoro-Β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil

listen (1-(2'-dee-OK-see-2'-FLOOR-oh-BAY-tuh-D-uh-RA-bih-noh-fyoor-A-noh-sil) YOOR-uh-sil) A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called FAU.

10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin

listen (10-proh-PAR-jil-10-dee-AY-zuh-a-mih-NOP-teh-rin) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.

11C topotecan

listen (... toh-poh-TEE-kan) A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.

123I-MIBG

A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. 123I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called AdreView, iobenguane I 123, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

126–F

A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126F have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jims Juice, JS101, JS114, Protocel, and Sheridans Formula.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

listen (12-O-TEH-truh-DEH-kuh-noyl-FOR-bol-13-A-seh-tayt) A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.

131I-MIBG

A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. 131I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called iobenguane I 131 and iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

13-cis retinoic acid

listen (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid) A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.

1572 form

listen ( form) A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.

17-AAG

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.

17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

listen (17-dy-MEH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-EH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-17-dee-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin) 17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

listen (17-N-A-lul-uh-MEE-noh-17-DEE-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.

18F-choline

listen (... KOH-leen) A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-choline gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-choline. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromethylcholine, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-EF5

A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.

18F-FLT

A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3-deoxy-3-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.

18F-fluoromethylcholine

listen ( FLOOR-oh-MEH-thul-KOH-leen) A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-fluoromethylcholine gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-fluoromethylcholine. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-fluoromisonidazole

listen ( FLOOR-oh-MY-soh-NIH-duh-zole) A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.

18F-FMCH

A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-FMCH gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-FMCH. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-fluoromethylcholine, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-MISO

A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-MISO is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-MISO in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-MISO is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromisonidazole and FMISO.

1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

listen (... NOO-klee-er mag-NEH-tik REH-zuh-nunts SPEK-troh-SKAH-pik IH-muh-jing) A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spatial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, MRSI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

1-methyl-d-tryptophan

listen (1-MEH-thul-d-TRIP-toh-fan) A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving 1-methyl-d-tryptophan to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called D-1MT.

21-gene signature

listen ( jeen SIG-nuh-cher) A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer will spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 21 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that is estrogen receptor positive and has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called Oncotype DX breast cancer assay.

2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170

listen ( MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking a monoclonal antibody called 170, which binds to a protein called MUC-1, to a substance called 2IT-BAD, which binds radioactive substances. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 may be used to detect cancer cells and kill them. It is a type of immunoconjugate.

2-methoxyestradiol

listen (2-meh-THOK-see-es-truh-DY-ol) 2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.

3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

listen (3 TES-luh mag-NEH-tik REH-zuh-nunts IH-muh-jing) A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla MRI and 3T MRI.

3 Tesla MRI

listen (3 TES-luh ) A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3T MRI.

3,4-benzpyrene

listen (... benz-PY-reen) A chemical that comes from certain substances when they are not burned completely. It is found in car exhaust, smoke from wood fires, tobacco, oil and gas products, charred or grilled foods, and other sources. It may also be found in water and soil. 3,4-Benzpyrene can cause a skin rash, a burning feeling, skin color changes, warts, and bronchitis. It may also cause cancer. It is a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Also called benzo(a)pyrene.

3´-deoxy-3´-(18F) fluorothymidine

listen ( dee-OK-see FLOOR-oh-THY-mih-DEEN) A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 3-deoxy-3-(18F) fluorothymidine is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 18F-FLT and fluorothymidine F 18.

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

listen (3-uh-MEE-noh-PEER-ih-deen-2-KAR-bok-SAL-deh-hide THY-oh-SEH-mee KAR-buh-ZONE) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.

3-AP

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.

3-D

A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-dimensional.

3D-CRT

A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3-dimensional radiation therapy.

3-dimensional

listen (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul) A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-D.

3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

listen (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul kun-FOR-mul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee) A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.

3-dimensional radiation therapy

listen (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee) A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.

3F8

A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

3T MRI

A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3T MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3 Tesla MRI.

45 CFR 46

Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.

45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46

listen (... FEH-drul REH-gyoo-LAY-shunz ...) Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 CFR 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.

4-demethoxydaunorubicin

listen (4-DEE-meh-THOK-see-DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin) A drug used with other drugs to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 4-demethoxydaunorubicin blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Idamycin and idarubicin hydrochloride.

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